WPF自定义漂亮的按钮样式

文章出处:博客园 作者:老鸟 发布时间:2008-07-21

首先打开 Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 ,新建一个WPF项目,在上面随便放几个按钮:

然后给各个按钮设置不同的背景颜色:

设置好之后就是这样啦:

然后我们就开始在 App.xaml 文件中定义按钮样式了:

定义的样式代码如下:

以下为引用的内容:
<Application x:Class="WPFButton.App"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    StartupUri="Window1.xaml">
    <Application.Resources>
        <!--定义按钮样式-->
        <Style TargetType="Button">
            <Setter Property="Foreground" Value="Black"/>
            <!--修改模板属性-->
            <Setter Property="Template">
                <Setter.Value>
                    <!--控件模板-->
                    <ControlTemplate TargetType="Button">
                        <!--背景色-->
                        <Border x:Name="back" Opacity="0.8" CornerRadius="3">
                            <Border.BitmapEffect>
                                <OuterGlowBitmapEffect Opacity="0.7" GlowSize="0" GlowColor="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource TemplatedParent}, Path=(Button.Background).(SolidColorBrush.Color)}" />
                            </Border.BitmapEffect>
                            <Border.Background>
                                <LinearGradientBrush StartPoint="0,0" EndPoint="0,1.5">
                                    <GradientBrush.GradientStops>
                                        <GradientStopCollection>
                                            <GradientStop Color="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource TemplatedParent}, Path=(Button.Background).(SolidColorBrush.Color)}" Offset="0"/>
                                            <GradientStop Color="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource TemplatedParent}, Path=(Button.Background).(SolidColorBrush.Color)}" Offset="0.4"/>
                                            <GradientStop Color="#FFF" Offset="1"/>
                                        </GradientStopCollection>
                                    </GradientBrush.GradientStops>
                                </LinearGradientBrush>
                            </Border.Background>
                            <!--前景色及边框-->
                            <Border x:Name="fore" BorderThickness="1" CornerRadius="3" BorderBrush="#5555">
                                <Border.Background>
                                    <LinearGradientBrush StartPoint="0,0" EndPoint="0,1">
                                        <GradientBrush.GradientStops>
                                            <GradientStopCollection>
                                                <GradientStop Color="#6FFF" Offset="0.5"/>
                                                <GradientStop Color="#1111" Offset="0.51"/>
                                            </GradientStopCollection>
                                        </GradientBrush.GradientStops>
                                    </LinearGradientBrush>
                                </Border.Background>
                                <!--按钮内容-->
                                <ContentPresenter x:Name="content" HorizontalAlignment="Center" VerticalAlignment="Center" Content="{TemplateBinding  Content}">
                                    <ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect>
                                        <DropShadowBitmapEffect Color="#000" Direction="-90" ShadowDepth="2" Softness="0.1" Opacity="0.3" />
                                    </ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect>
                                </ContentPresenter>
                            </Border>
                        </Border>
                        <!--触发器-->
                        <ControlTemplate.Triggers>
                            <!--鼠标移入移出-->
                            <Trigger Property="IsMouseOver" Value="True">
                                <Trigger.EnterActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation To="6" Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#AFFF" BeginTime="0:0:0.2" Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#3FFF" BeginTime="0:0:0.2" Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.EnterActions>
                                <Trigger.ExitActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.ExitActions>
                            </Trigger>
                            <!--按钮按下弹起-->
                            <Trigger Property="IsPressed" Value="True">
                                <Trigger.EnterActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation To="3" Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#3AAA" Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#2111" Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.EnterActions>
                                <Trigger.ExitActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.ExitActions>
                            </Trigger>
                            <!--按钮失效-->
                            <Trigger Property="IsEnabled" Value="False">
                                <Setter Property="Foreground" Value="#B444"/>
                                <Trigger.EnterActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation To="0" Duration="0:0:0.3" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <DoubleAnimation To="1" Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Opacity)" />
                                            <DoubleAnimation To="-135" Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Direction)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#FFF" Duration="0:0:0.3" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#D555" Duration="0:0:0.3" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BorderBrush).(SolidColorBrush.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#CEEE" Duration="0:0:0.3" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#CDDD" Duration="0:0:0.3" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.EnterActions>
                                <Trigger.ExitActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Opacity)" />
                                            <DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Direction)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BorderBrush).(SolidColorBrush.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.ExitActions>
                            </Trigger>
                        </ControlTemplate.Triggers>
                    </ControlTemplate>
                </Setter.Value>
            </Setter>
        </Style>
    </Application.Resources>
</Application>

看了先不要头大,我们先看看最终效果,然后回过头来再解释代码:

这是常规样式

这个是鼠标移到上面时的样式

 

这个是鼠标点击时的样式

还有就是按钮失效时的样式

效果还算不错吧,下面来讲解代码喽,头晕的同学可以现在就收拾东西回家了哈。

我们先来看这个命名为“back”的 Border 元素,它用它的 Background 属性充当了整个按钮的背景色。

以下为引用的内容:

<Border.Background>
                                <LinearGradientBrush StartPoint="0,0" EndPoint="0,1.5">
                                    <GradientBrush.GradientStops>
                                        <GradientStopCollection>
                                            <GradientStop Color="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource TemplatedParent}, Path=(Button.Background).(SolidColorBrush.Color)}" Offset="0"/>
                                            <GradientStop Color="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource TemplatedParent}, Path=(Button.Background).(SolidColorBrush.Color)}" Offset="0.4"/>
                                            <GradientStop Color="#FFF" Offset="1"/>
                                        </GradientStopCollection>
                                    </GradientBrush.GradientStops>
                                </LinearGradientBrush>
                            </Border.Background>

其背景所用的是一个渐变笔刷,起始值和中间值都是引用的按钮本身的背景色,就是我们之前设置过的颜色啦,终止值是白色,这样通过位置调整,我们可以在按钮最下部产生一些向白色的过度色彩效果。

以下为引用的内容:
<Border.BitmapEffect>
                                <OuterGlowBitmapEffect Opacity="0.7" GlowSize="0" GlowColor="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource TemplatedParent}, Path=(Button.Background).(SolidColorBrush.Color)}" />
                            </Border.BitmapEffect>

它的 BitmapEffect 属性我们设置了一个大小为 0 的外发光效果,平常是看不见这效果的,在这里预先设置好,是为了在鼠标移入、按下时实现动画使用。

再来看看这个命名为“fore”的 Border 元素,它实现的是按钮的边框和高亮反光效果,我为它设置了一个半透明的黑色1像素边框,使得这个边框的色彩可以和背景色混合起来。

以下为引用的内容:
 <Border.Background>
                                    <LinearGradientBrush StartPoint="0,0" EndPoint="0,1">
                                        <GradientBrush.GradientStops>
                                            <GradientStopCollection>
                                                <GradientStop Color="#6FFF" Offset="0.5"/>
                                                <GradientStop Color="#1111" Offset="0.51"/>
                                            </GradientStopCollection>
                                        </GradientBrush.GradientStops>
                                    </LinearGradientBrush>
                                </Border.Background>

它的背景同样采用的渐变笔刷,起始值和终止值的位置几乎贴在一起,从而形成比较鲜明的反光度对比。

ContentPresenter 元素用于呈现按钮原本的内容,对于按钮来说就是按钮上的文字了,当然也可能会存在图片或其它东西。

以下为引用的内容:
 <ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect>
                                        <DropShadowBitmapEffect Color="#000" Direction="-90" ShadowDepth="2" Softness="0.1" Opacity="0.3" />
                                    </ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect>

我为之加了一个不太明显的阴影滤镜以增强显示效果。

剩下的就是些可爱又该死的 Trigger ,我们通过这些触发器来改变按钮在不同状态时的外观。

以下为引用的内容:
      <!--鼠标移入移出-->
                            <Trigger Property="IsMouseOver" Value="True">
                                <Trigger.EnterActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation To="6" Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#AFFF" BeginTime="0:0:0.2" Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#3FFF" BeginTime="0:0:0.2" Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.EnterActions>
                                <Trigger.ExitActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.2" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.ExitActions>
                            </Trigger>

在鼠标移入按钮时,我依次创建了改变外发光效果大小、改变上部反光区域颜色、改变下部反光区域颜色的动画,这里的要点就在于“Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)"”属性设置语句,琢磨一下你就能看出这是对属性路径的描述,只不过它们写起来和看起来都很让人生气。

以下为引用的内容:
                       <!--按钮按下弹起-->
                            <Trigger Property="IsPressed" Value="True">
                                <Trigger.EnterActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation To="3" Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#3AAA" Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#2111" Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.EnterActions>
                                <Trigger.ExitActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.ExitActions>
                            </Trigger>

按下和弹起按钮时,我们做了相似的动画改变,与前面相比只是数值略微不同。

以下为引用的内容:
<!--按钮失效-->
                            <Trigger Property="IsEnabled" Value="False">
                                <Setter Property="Foreground" Value="#B444"/>
                                <Trigger.EnterActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation To="0" Duration="0:0:0.3" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <DoubleAnimation To="1" Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Opacity)" />
                                            <DoubleAnimation To="-135" Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Direction)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#FFF" Duration="0:0:0.3" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#D555" Duration="0:0:0.3" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BorderBrush).(SolidColorBrush.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#CEEE" Duration="0:0:0.3" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation To="#CDDD" Duration="0:0:0.3" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.EnterActions>
                                <Trigger.ExitActions>
                                    <BeginStoryboard>
                                        <Storyboard>
                                            <DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="back" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BitmapEffect).(OuterGlowBitmapEffect.GlowSize)" />
                                            <DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Opacity)" />
                                            <DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Direction)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="content" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(ContentPresenter.BitmapEffect).(DropShadowBitmapEffect.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.BorderBrush).(SolidColorBrush.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[0].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                            <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" Storyboard.TargetName="fore" Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Border.Background).(LinearGradientBrush.GradientStops)[1].(GradientStop.Color)" />
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </BeginStoryboard>
                                </Trigger.ExitActions>
                            </Trigger>

当按钮失效时,我要改变很多东西,首先将文字颜色设为灰色,然后依次创建了改变外发光效果大小、改变内容阴影效果不透明度、改变内容阴影效果角度、改变内容阴影效果颜色、改变按钮边框颜色、改变上部反光区域颜色、改变下部反光区域颜色的动画。

这里将先前对内容应用的阴影效果彻底改变,使之产生凹陷的效果。

好了,到这里就下课啦,文章有点冗长了,但应该对新手很有帮助,老鸟估计现在已经梦游仙境了吧。